Health and Fitness

Pesticide Residue analysis

Handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope with a small footprint

Pesticide Residue analysis

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Handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope with a small footprint

Pesticide residues on crop products can be detected on-site.

 However, it takes time and necessitates particular sample preparation [31, 32]. In situ pesticide detection on fruits has been done using spontaneous Raman spectroscopy [33]. However, it is slow and prone to ambient light interruptions. A Listeria Analysis handheld SRS microscope can detect pesticide residue in situ, at high speed, under ambient light, and without additional sample preparations, making it a useful examination platform. By imaging spinach leaves with thiabendazole crystals on them, Liao et al. accomplished pesticide residue detection with a handheld SRS microscope [25]. The handheld SRS microscope successfully conducted in situ label-free detections of the pesticide residue, as illustrated in Fig. 37.5.

Pesticides and associated pollutants in food: multi-residue methods

Pesticide residue analysis is a specialized discipline of analytical chemistry that heavily relies on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Because of the tight worldwide laws on maximum residue limits, a highly reliable determination of pesticide residues in food is now essential. This includes both quantification and identification. The inclusion of pesticide-related chemicals inside the residue definition has sparked an increased interest in adding metabolites in analysis. Because of the polar nature of most pesticides now in use, and especially their metabolites, liquid chromatography (LC) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) is the method of choice.

the vast majority of substances As a result, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with a triple quadrupole analyzer is ideal for creating multi-residue techniques that can detect up to 300–400 analytes at once. It can also be used to analyze troublesome, highly polar pesticides, albeit this necessitates the use of particular LC-MS/MS procedures, such as sample treatment and measurement conditions. Due to the accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition, high-resolution MS using modern analyzers such as time-of-flight or orbitrap offers interesting features for wide-scope screening of pesticides and metabolites in food, with the advantage that a retrospective analysis can be performed at any time to search for other compounds that were not included in the first 

Fluorescence and Food Applications

Residues of Pesticides

GC is mostly used to assess pesticide residues in foods. Although some pesticides, such as N-methyl carbamates, have restrictions with this approach, the majority of them are either kept on the chromatographic column or degraded to their phenols. Furthermore, GC derivatization procedures for

the determination of aromatic carbamates with electron-capture detection, which involve initial hydrolysis to the corresponding phenols or amines and reaction

with halogen-rich reagents, have some limitations that can reduce their sensitivity and applicability.LC operations are stated to be more convenient than GC procedures for a wide range of carbamates, both in their uncombined form by UV detection Salmonella analysis and after derivatization, most typically with OPA and 2-ME, via fluorescence detection. Aldicarb, bufencarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, methiocarb, methomyl, oxamyl, and the metabolites aldicarb

sulfone and 3-hydroxycarbofuran can be detected in grapes and potatoes using an official method based on this methodology (AOAC 985.23). Table 2 summarizes some of these strategies’ properties. LIF detection was employed to measure N-methylcarbamate by LC after precolumn derivatization with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzol-1,3-diol.

Pesticides of various types and chemical compositions

Organophosphorus pesticides (carbophenothion, coumaphos, demeton, dichlorvos, and others), carbonate insecticides (carbaryl), dithiocarbamate fungicides (bromopropylate, chloropicrin, ethylene dibromide, etc.). Tobacco leaf and nicotine, pyrethrum flower, pyrethrum extract and pyrethroids, and rotenoids are all employed as plant-based insecticides (Mukherjee, 2002). Pesticides have a very brief residual activity for chlorinated hydrocarbons and a few organophosphorus compounds. As a result, these compounds are being tested in plant material. Figure 4.33 depicts insecticides and pesticides, including those produced from plants.

Food and environmental analysis using TOF-MS

 Pesticides are utilized in over 1000 countries throughout the world [1]. Pesticides are probably the most heavily controlled chemical use. Due to a large number of probable residues, multi-residue methods (MRMs) must be developed as soon as feasible to allow official laboratories to exert effective control [2]. 

Regulatory rules specify maximum residue levels (MRLs) in food for most pesticide residues and their transformation products to

assess appropriate agricultural practices and safeguard people from potentially harmful health consequences. MRLs in European Food Regulations (Regulation (EC) No 396/2005) range from 0.01 to 10 mg kg 1[3, depending on the commodity–pesticide combination, with the lowest level being characteristic of banned or highly toxic compounds—because it is thought that this would be the minimum limit of detection achievable with reasonable uncertainty [4]. These requirements are particularly stringent in the case of infant food, as mandated by Commission Directive 2006/125/EC, which states that baby food must have no detectable pesticide residues (0.01 mg kg 1 or less) [5]. Because of the low MRLs, more powerful and sensitive analytical methods have been developed [6–8].

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